Purpose: To evaluate structural changes in response to antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment in patients with long-term type 1 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA).
Method: This is a longitudinal study that involved a total of 51 eyes with type 1 CNV (35 female and 16 male eyes). Structural OCT and OCTA were performed on all the subjects. AngioVue OCTA (XR Avanti, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) was used to obtain qualitative and quantitative information. All eyes were treated with an anti-VEGF ProReNata (PRN) approach and were followed for a mean of 38.9 months (SD ± 7.22). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed at each follow-up timepoint.
Results: We observed two kinds of possible evolution of type 1 CNV: “positive evolution,” including stabilization in 20% of patients and chronicity in 35%, and “negative evolution,” in which fibrosis was shown in 18% of patients, chorioretinal atrophy in 25%, and hemorrhage or RPE tears in 2%. The mean BCVA at baseline was 33.67 ± 15.85 ETDRS letters; after 1 and 2 years, it was 31.61 ± 18.04 and 31.18 ± 18.58 ETDRS letters, respectively. The mean BCVA at the end of follow-up was 25.27 ± 20 ETDRS letters. The difference between the values at baseline and at the end of follow-up was not statistically significant (P = 0.06, r 2 = 0.10).
Conclusions: This study describes an in vivo structural long-term evolution of type 1 CNV by OCT and OCTA. Different possible CNV outcomes were observed. This study suggests that new retinal imaging techniques could be useful tools for assessing the potential retinal changes in the evolution of type 1 CNV to develop personalized medicine. Further studies using OCTA in the long term are needed to better understand why similarly treated type 1 CNV cases evolve differently and produce different results.