Rispoli M, Cennamo G, Antonio LD, Lupidi M, Parravano M, Pellegrini M, Veritti D, Vujosevic S, Savastano MC.
Surv Ophthalmol. 2023 Feb 26:S0039-6257(23)00039-5. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2023.02.004. Online ahead of print.
PMID: 36854371 Review.
Publication year: 2023


We provide an overview of current macular imaging techniques and identify and describe biomarkers that may be of use in the routine management of macular diseases, particularly exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This perspective includes sections on macular imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA), classification of exudative AMD, and biomarkers in structural OCT and OCTA. Fluorescein angiography remains a vital tool for assessing the activity of neovascular lesions, while indocyanine green angiography is the preferred option for choroidal vessel imaging in neovascular AMD. OCT provides a non-invasive three-dimensional visualization of retinal architecture in vivo and is useful in the diagnosis of many imaging biomarkers of AMD-related neovascular lesions, including lesion activity. OCTA is a recent advance in OCT technology that allows accurate visualization of retinal and choroidal vascular flow. OCT and OCTA have led to an updated classification of exudative AMD lesions and provide several biomarkers that help to establish a diagnosis and the disease activity status of neovascular lesions. Individualization of therapy guided by OCT and OCTA biomarkers has the potential to further improve visual outcomes in exudative AMD. Moving forwards, integration of technologically-advanced imaging equipment with AI software will help ophthalmologists to provide patients with the best possible care.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Biomarkers; Exudative age-related macular degeneration; Imaging; Optical Coherence Tomography; Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.