To describe and interpret the features of pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) technique.
This is an observational case series of patients who presented with PNV. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment examination, dilated funduscopic examination, infrared and autofluorescence fundus images and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT; B-scan, ‘en-face’ and OCTA) were carried out for all patients. Choroid thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode. Colour fundus photographs, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were not performed systematically. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of PNV are described and interpreted.
Five eyes of five patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (range, 53-73 years) presenting with PNV were analysed. They all presented pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) with choroidal thickening and dilated choroidal vessels as seen with EDI-OCT. Fluorescein angiography (FFA) was performed in three patients showing multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy and fundus lesions suggestive of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in one patient confirmed the presence of large choroidal veins and choroidal hyperpermeability seen beneath the area of the neovascular tissue. Two eyes had the appearance of polypoidal structures within the neovascular tissue, with the characteristic aspect of the polypoidal lesions on B-scan and ‘en-face’. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) showed the appearance of tangled filamentous vascular network in all eyes.
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a safe, highly sensitive and specific examination for the detection of type 1 neovascularization associated with PPE. Features are characteristic of tangled filamentous vessels overlying a focal area of thickened choroid.