To report morphologic features of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare these findings to fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), confocal blue reflectance (CBR), and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). In addition, foveal vessel density and parafoveal vascular density (PFVD), and foveal retinal thickness and parafoveal retinal thickness (PFRT) were compared between MacTel 2 patients and normal aged-matched controls.
Eight patients (15 eyes) with MacTel 2 and 17 normal controls (17 eyes) underwent retinal multimodal imaging assessment and grading. Results from different imaging techniques were used to compare interimaging modalities. Objective quantification of retinal vessel density and macular thickness was evaluated in MacTel 2 patients (15 eyes).
In MacTel 2 eyes a comparison of OCTA to the other imaging techniques showed that the strongest correlations were present with SD-OCT, early FFA, and late FFA. Moderate correlations were found between OCTA and CBR and FAF. Foveal vessel density was significantly lower in MacTel 2 eyes than control eyes both in the superficial plexus (23.74% vs. 33.14%; P = 0.003) and in the deep plexus (24.63% vs. 34.21%; P = 0.005). Superficial PFVD was significantly different in the two groups (47.06% vs. 51.40%; P = 0.005) but not the deep PFVD. Foveal retinal thickness was 214.13 μm in MacTel 2 eyes and 258.18 μm in normal controls, and PFRT was 279.60 and 323.29 μm, respectively (P < 0.0001).
Optical coherence tomography angiography is useful for retinal vasculature characterization in MacTel type 2 patients and showed a high correlation with well-established imaging techniques.