Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of oral administration of the combination of astaxanthin (AXT), lutein, folic acid, vitamin D3, and bromelain with antioxidants on choroidal blood flow in patients with age-related intermediate macular degeneration (AMD). Materials and Methods: Patients affected by intermediate AMD and treated with daily oral nutritional supplement with AXT, bromelain, vitamin D3, folic acid, lutein, and antioxidants for a period of at least 6 months were included in this retrospective study. A control group homogenous for age and sex was also included in the analysis. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) evaluation. Outcome measures were choroidal thickness (CHT) and choriocapillary vessel density (CCVD) after six months of AXT assumption. Results: CCVD values showed statistically significant difference between cases and controls at baseline (p < 0.001) and in the cases during follow-up (p < 0.001). The CHT measurements showed statistically significant difference between cases and controls (p = 0.002) and in the cases during follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combined use of structural OCT and OCTA allows for a detailed analysis in vivo of perfusion parameters of the choriocapillaris and choroid and evaluation of changes of choroidal blood flow after oral nutritional supplements that affect blood flow velocity.
Keywords: astaxanthin; choroidal blood flow; intermediate AMD; optical coherence tomography angiography.